21 September 2014

Babylon (poem)

(written during university in the early 1980's)

Living in the material world
Or our instant breakfast, quick fix,
Subdivided suburban pseudo-culture
You're another product of our throwaway society
Governed by TV
Forsaking the world and all its gifts
To live in an artificial world
Created by man
Concrete and metal, steel and glass
Chlorinated water and asphalt grass
So busy experiencing life
That you never learn to live

The value neutral prophets
Of the creeping meatball urge
Consume, consume, consume
You only see your fellow creatures
In aquariums and zoos
Sharing your hermetically-sealed cocoon
Forests fall before the blitzkrieg
Of technology and progress
Leaving only scenery for decoration
Nothing remaining behind
For the unborn yet to be
And you call this “development”
As if anyone could improve
On the handiwork of God

Living life as a spectator sport
In a casket with a view
You see the world through the lens
Of TV cameras, edited and spliced
As fleeting as the screen's image
Sixty blips per second
Until you change the channel
If death is not real then neither is life
And no one ever dies here
They simply pass away
Only to return in reruns
Leaving unanswered the question
Of what happens next

The river of your life runs shallow
And you’ve never learned to swim
So feeling empty and alone you pray
To your plastic Jesus Christ
Patron of free enterprise and the American way
You take the twelve steps to salvation
The latest highway to heaven
So that you can feel good about yourself again
And validate the soul that isn’t there
But the mutual masturbation
Of modern day religion
Leaves you no answer
And gives you no clue
To what’s behind the veil
In the holy of holies

So when your soul looks to the west
And the owl calls your name
What then?

Technical Difficulty:  Please Stand By

08 September 2014

Federal Military Occupation of Chattanooga and vicinity

During the War of the Rebellion, the town of Chattanooga and its environs served as base for the Union’s Department of the Cumberland and became home to many forts, redoubts, earthworks, lunettes, rifle pits, breastworks, redans, lilts, blockhouses, and other fortifications.  The period known officially as the Federal Military Occupation stretched from 9 September 1863 to 20 August 1866.  It did not really begin as such, however, until the Atlanta Campaign launched from Chattanooga and its environs on 5 May 1864.

At the time of the war, the town limits of Chattanooga stretched from the Tennessee River in the north and west to what are now West 23rd Street and Baldwin Street in the south and east. 

The Chattanooga Town Hall, then on the southwest corner of Market and East 6th Street where Regions Bank is now (as of September 2014), served as headquarters for the Department of the Cumberland until it was dissolved in June 1865, and for the Post of Chattanooga, the later District of the Etowah, and finally the District of East Tennessee.   

The Federal Military Occupation officially began 9 September 1863 when Brig. Gen. G. D. Wagner of the 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 21st Corps, Army of the Cumberland, entered the town in the wake of the withdrawal by the Confederate Army of Tennessee that morning.  It ended when the last two federal units, the 16th and the 44th U.S. Colored Troops, mustered out of service 30 April 1866, though Maj. Gen. Alvan C. Gillem continued as commander of the Military District of East Tennessee until the end of the year.

The HQs of both the Department and the Post of Chattanooga made their homes there, and later the District of the Etowah after it replaced the Post of Chattanooga in the reorganization of the Department in February 1865, following the dissolution of the Department of the Ohio and the merger of its units and territories into that of the Cumberland.  With the complete reorganization of military departments in the occupied territories, Chattanooga became headquarters for the District of East Tennessee of the Department of Tennessee in the Division of the Tennessee.

The purpose of all these defenses was two-fold.  First, to protect the hub of the five railroads which met in Chattanooga, three of which utilized the same physical tracks entering the town.  Second, to provide support for defense of the rail lines extending outward from Chattanooga:
           
The shared line of the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad and the Memphis & Charleston Railroad from Chattanooga to Bridgeport;

The Wills Valley Railroad, which branched off the line of the first two at Wauhatchie Station and at the time ended in Trenton, Georgia;
           
The section of the East Tennessee & Georgia Railroad from Chattanooga extending to the Hiwassee River, the boundary between the Department of the Cumberland and the Department of the Ohio, which guarded the remainder;
           
The Western & Atlantic Railroad as far as the Union front lines extended in Georgia.

Five years later and there might have been a sixth to defend: the Harrison & Lafayette Railroad abandoned shortly before the war due to bankruptcy.  It was to junction with the Western & Atlantic one mile west of Graysville at a station to be called Johnson.  Gunbarrel Road originated as part of the roadbed, while another section was flattened and packed along a section extending one-quarter north of the intended junction.  Military maps indicate that Johnson Station itself, probably little more than a whistle-stop platform, had been built.

It was in pursuit of the second objective, protection of the railroads, that at the end of June 1864, Maj. Gen. James B. Steedman, commanding officer of the Post of Chattanooga then the District of the Etowah until taking up command of the new Department of Georgia at Augusta on 27 June 1865, issued an order that all civilians not having taken a loyalty oath found within three miles of any railroad were to be brought to Chattanooga as spies.

The following are the forts, redoubts, and batteries in Chattanooga town proper, between Baldwin Street, Twenty-third Street, and the Tennessee River.  The ordnance listed for each is that with which they were provisioned at the outset of the Atlanta Campaign.

Before its defacing for fill dirt, Cameron Hill was a miniature Lookout Mountain.  To the east of its northern end stands Kirkman Hill, now home to ATT Stadium.  Between the two is Stillhouse Hollow.  The end of what’s now West MLK Boulevard on the river side of Cameron Hill came out in Blue Goose Hollow, later home to Bessie Smith.  Terrace Hill sits somewhat detached slightly to the south.  Academy or College Hill stands to the southeast.

Forts and batteries in the town of Chattanooga

Fort Carpenter (aka Redoubt Carpenter) sat atop Kirkman Hill, formerly known as Reservoir Hill, so-named for having been the city reservoir post-bellum.  It hosted two 100-pounder Parrott guns, two 3-inch Rodman guns, and two light 12-pounder guns.  Named for Maj. Stephen D. Carpenter, 19th U.S. Infantry, killed at the battle of Stones River 31 December 1862.

Signal Point, the garrison’s most important communications post, stood at the apex of Cameron Hill.  About the same area now occupied by the miniscule remnant of Boynton Park which once crowned the entire hilltop.

Fort Cameron, originally built by the Confederates, also sat on the crest of Cameron Hill, but about a city block south of Signal Point.  It sat right in the middle of the Blue Cross complex and hosted four 100-pounder Parrott guns.  Named for Unionist supporter James Cameron.

Fort Coolidge (aka Redoubt Coolidge or Battery Coolidge; originally Battery Rousseau) occupied approximately at the current intersection of West MLK Boulevard and Boynton Avenue on a knoll above the south side of Blue Goose Hollow.  It hosted two 3-inch Rodman guns and two 12-pounder howitzers.  Named for Maj. Sidney Coolidge, 16th U. S. Infantry, killed at the battle of Chickamauga, 19 September 1863.

Fort Mihalotzy (originally Fort Brannan) was nearby on the southern spur of Cameron Hill, roughly at the intersection of West Martin Luther King Boulevard and Gateway Avenue. It hosted four 15-inch Rodman guns and four 8-inch Rodman guns.  Named for Col. Geza Mihalotzy, 24th Illinois Infantry, killed at Dalton, 25 February 1864.

Fort Sheridan (aka Fort Crutchfield and Redoubt Crutchfield) stood on Terrace Hill about where the Boynton Towers building now stands.  It hosted one 15-inch Rodman gun and two light 12-pounder guns.  Named for another outspoken Unionist, William Crutchfield.

Fort Lytle (aka Star Fort) took up around four city blocks on Academy Hill in the about center of College Hill Courts.  Its massive walls were twenty feet high and several feet thick and hosted three 20-pounder Parrott guns  and two light 12-pounder guns.  Named for Brig. Gen. William I. Lytle, killed at the battle of Chickamauga, 20 September 1863.

Fort Jones (aka Battery Jones and Stone Fort) stood where the federal Customs House is now across from city hall, hosting one 20-pounder Parrott gun, two 12-pounder howitzers, and three light 12-pounder guns.  Named for Col.  William G. Jones, 36th Ohio Infantry, killed at the battle of Chickamauga, 19 September 1863.

Battery Taft lay south of East Martin Luther King Boulevard between Lindsay Street and Houston Street.  The fortification may never have served its intended function, hosting garrison infantry soldiers instead of guns.  Named for Lieut. Col. J. B. Taft, 73rd Pennsylvania Infantry, killed at the battle of Chattanooga, 25 November 1863.

Battery Erwin was divided in half and took up three positions.  One was in the southeast corner of East 8th Street and Mabel Street.  Another was in the northeast corner of East Martin Luther King Boulevard and Peeples Street.  The unit also manned a line of works along the west side of Houston Street between McCallie Avenue and Vine Street.  The battery was assigned four 3-inch Rodman guns and two 12-pounder howitzers.  Named for Maj. S. C. Erwin, 6th Ohio Infantry, killed at the battle of Chattanooga, 25 November 1863.

Fort Sherman stretched from East 3rd Street past East 4th Street to East 5th Street between Georgia Avenue and Lindsay Street and beyond.  The Brabson House stood in the center of the line of works.  Named for Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman, commanding the Military Division of the Mississippi.

Redoubt Putnam (aka Fort Putnam) sat at the southeast corner of Walnut Street and East 5th Street, anchoring the west end of Fort Sherman and hosting two 15-inch Rodman guns and four 12-pounder howitzers.  Named for Col. Holden Putnam, 93rd Illinois Infantry, killed at the battle of Chattanooga, 25 November 1863.

Lunette O’Meara stuck out from the center of Fort Sherman at the southeast corner of East 5th Street and Lindsay Street hosting two 30-pounder Parrott guns and six light 12-pounder guns.  Named for Lieut. Col. Timothy O’Meara, 90th Illinois Infantry, killed at the battle of Chattanooga, 25 November 1863.

Battery Bushnell (aka Redoubt Bushnell) sat in the northeast corner of East 4th Street and Lindsay Street, anchoring the east end of Fort Sherman and hosting two 20-pounder Parrott guns and two 8-inch Rodman guns.  Named for Maj. D. L. Bushnell, 13th Illinois Infantry, killed in the battle of Chattanooga, 25 November 1863

Signal Hill, the garrison’s second-most important communications platform, lay roughly in the center of the parking lot of what is now Hunter Museum. In official correspondence, Union officers referred to the entire hill on the east side (and beyond) as Signal Hill.  Sometimes called East Fifth Street Hill or Brabson Hill by locals, Signal Hill extends from Market Street in the west to the old line of the East Tennessee & Virginia Railroad (now the UTC Greenway) in the west, south of the Tennessee River to East MLK Boulevard.

Battery McAloon sat on the Tennessee River, near the end of Houston Street, forward of Battery Bushnell and above Citico Creek, giving its name to the Battery Place neighborhood while hosting four 12-pounder howitzers.  Named for Lieut. Col. P. A. McAloon, 27th Pennsylvania Infantry, killed at the battle of Chattanooga, 25 November 1863.

A blockhouse guarded the railroad depot which once occupied the site where the Krystal Building and the Public Library are now.

In addition to these, numerous earthworks, rifle pits, and breastworks provided additional defense.  Each redoubt had at its center a blockhouse keep. 

A two-mile long parapet stretched across the line from upriver to down river, anchored by Forts Crutchfield, Lytle, and Jones, Battery Erwin, and Fort Sherman from west to east.

Speaking of Fort Sherman, Redoubt Putnam, Lunette O’Meara, and Battery Bushnell were parts of its overall fortifications.

A magazine ran the length of the east side of Cameron Hill, dug deep into its ground.

Forward positions outside the town limits and the long parapet included the following:

Fort Creighton (aka Fort Wood) at the apex of what’s now called Fort Wood Hill occupied a city block, was a bastion with a blockhouse keep.  Its armaments were eight 8-inch Rodman guns and six 12-pound Whitworth guns.  Named for Col. William R. Creighton, Seventh Ohio Infantry, killed in the assault upon the enemy’s lines on Taylors Ridge at Ringgold Gap commanding 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 12th Army Corps, 27 November 1863.

Lunette Palmer (originally Fort Jef. C. Davis), atop the knob of Chattanooga's eastern hill where Park Place School is now.

Fort Phelps (aka Fort Negley), a bastion with a blockhouse keep, stood within the modern Fort Negley neighborhood bound by Main Street, East 17th Street, Mitchell Street, Read Street and Rossville Avenue.  It had seven 8-inch Rodman guns and three 12-pound Whitworth guns.  Named for  Col. E. H. Phelps, 38th Ohio Infantry, killed commanding the 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 14th Army Corps in the assault against Missionary Ridge.

The construction of the wooden bridge known as the Meigs Allee, the first permanent span connecting the right and left banks of the Tennessee River at Chattanooga, was one of the more impressive feats of the Pioneer Brigade, the Army of the Cumberland’s combat engineers.  Assisted in this case by soldiers of the 21st Michigan Infantry, the engineers designed the bridge to replace the temporary pontoon bridge erected first.  Its north end touched land at what is now Renaissance Park, where the foundation of the blockhouse guarding that end remains.

On the north side of the river, west of the city, earthworks and a blockhouse together called Fort Whitaker occupied the southern tip of Stringers Ridge at the big toe of Moccasin Point.  In addition there were four additional blockhouses on that ridge and other hills across what is now Hill City and North Chattanooga.  A redoubt stood atop the hill in Normal Park upon which Valentine Circle now runs, probably marking the eastern end of the fortifications.  The whole line was anchored in the center, over the current tunnel between Hill City and Red Bank, by Fort Wilder, first built for defense of the guns battering the city 21 August-9 September, opening the Chattanooga Campaign.

Fort King was the redoubt at Point Lookout atop the same-named mountain, inside what's now Fort Circle. It was supported by two blockhouses and surrounding rifle pits.

Fort Hooker was the redoubt anchoring the line of works protecting the western approach to the critical Brown's Ferry and Brown's Landing in lower Lookout Valley, at least from their capture by Union forces through the Battles of Chattanooga.  The Confederates built it originally as Redoubt Stevenson.

If Union troops ever occupied the former Fort Cheatham, headquarters of the Confederacy’s Maj. Gen. Frank Cheatham, there is no record of it.

Every high point in the Chattanooga Valley probably hosted a blockhouse.  We know that the Citico Mound, at the old Mississippian-era Muskogean site, did so because photographs exist from the occupation of soldiers next to it.  Other likely sites for blockhouses in the valley include Orchard Knob, Indian Hill, Bald Knob, Clifton Hill, and Hawkins Ridge.

Blockhouses guarded both sides of the Tennessee River at Brown’s Ferry.  Further upriver, another undoubtedly guarded the county seat at Harrison, unless the Union reused the redoubt previously built there by Pat Cleburne’s troops.  Doubtful, since records indicate a small blockhouse at Tyner Station despite the fact that two more of his redoubts were on either side of the tracks (another pair lay three miles south on a ridge overlooking Chickamauga Station).

Railroad blockhouses and earthworks

At Bridgeport were three redoubts, the imaginatively named Fort No. 3 on a knoll west of the railroad and the equally imaginatively named Fort No. 2 at the northwest end of the hill in Bridgeport.  The third, Fort No. 1 which may never have been manned, was a massive structure five hundred feet long.  All three had blockhouses within.

Between Bridgeport and Chattanooga, the Army Pioneer Brigade built ten more blockhouses guarding key points.  Three guarded the two railroad bridges passing over Long Island just off-bank from Bridgeport.  Two were large cross-shaped infantry and artillery blockhouses, one on the island the other on the left bank.  The third guarded a battery posted on the hill overlooking the bridge on the left bank.  Four more guarded the massive railroad trestle in Running Water Valley, now called Whiteside, constructed by the Pioneer Brigade, the combat engineers of the Army of the Cumberland. 

Wauhatchie Station, the junction of the two railroads on the one rail from the west with the Wills Valley Railroad coming up from Trenton, would have had one or two blockhouses and maybe a redoubt too.  So too would Trenton, as well as any bridges.

East of Chattanooga, the Pioneer Brigade built another railroad improvement, a junction for the Western & Atlantic and East Tennessee & Georgia Railroads steering the first onto the tracks of the second through the tunnel in Missionary Ridge.  This was roughly at the current junction of the two lines just west of the South Chickamauga Creek, near the later McCarty Station (long since abandoned and demolished).  The site was called Chickamauga Junction.

Chickamauga Junction hosted Blockhouse No. 1 on the Western & Atlantic.  Just one-third mile to the east, Blockhouse No. 2 guarded the two bridges over the creek.  Blockhouse No. 3 stood at Chickamauga Station, across the road from the modern airport.  Another blockhouse stood between the bridges in the Concord (now East Brainerd) area.  Another covered the town of Graysville.  One more covered the bridge at Graysville.  Still another covered the bridge just above that. 

Eventually there were twenty-three blockhouses in all on the W&A line, all garrisoned by troops from the District of the Etowah.  These included blockhouses at Tunnel Hill, Buzzard’s Roost, Tilton, Dalton, Resaca, Cassville, Allatoona Creek, Acworth, Moon’s Station near Big Shanty, and several others.  In addition, Fort Miller and Fort Hill stood in Dalton, Fort Wayne at Resaca, and Redoubt Rowett, Star Fort, and Eastern Redoubt (together known as Fort Allatoona) guarding the critical pass at Allatoona.

At its maximum eastern limit, the Post of Chattanooga-District of the Etowah covered the line of the East Tennessee &  Georgia Railroad to the left bank of the Hiwassee River at Charleston.  The line shared Blockhouse Nos. 1 and 2 with the Western & Atlantic.  Its next was at Tyner Station.  Another blockhouse protected the station and bridge at Ooltewah.  To the northeast at Cleveland were two redoubts.  A redoubt and two blockhouses guarded the bridge at the town of Charleston across from Calhoun, the beginning of the District of East Tennessee.

Those are the Union fortifications in the District of the Etowah area.  Now we can turn to the troops who garrisoned them.

Commanding officers for the Post of Chattanooga, Dept. of the Cumberland;
the District of the Etowah, Dept. of the Cumberland; and
the Post of Chattanooga, District of East Tennessee, Dept. of Tennessee

Brig. Gen. G. D. Wagner, CO, Post of Chattanooga, Department of the Cumberland, 9 September-6 November 1863

Col. John G. Parkhurst, CO, Post of Chattanooga, Department of the Cumberland, 6 November-29 December 1863

Col. Marion C. Taylor, CO, Post of Chattanooga, Department of the Cumberland, 29 December 1863-13 February 1864

Maj. Gen. James B. Steedman, CO, Post of Chattanooga, Department of the Cumberland, 13 February-15 June 1864; CO, District of the Etowah, Department of the Cumberland, 15 June-29 November 1864

Maj. Gen. Thomas Meagher, acting CO, District of the Etowah, Department of the Cumberland, 29 November 1864-5 January 1865

Maj. Gen. James B. Steedman, CO, District of the Etowah, Department of the Cumberland, 5 January 1865-14 June 1865

Col. Alfred T. Smith, CO, District of the Etowah, Department of the Cumberland, 14 June-20 June 1865

Col. J. F. Curtis, CO, Post of Chattanooga, District of the Etowah, Department of the Cumberland, 20 June-4 July 1865

Maj. Gen. Alvan C. Gillem, CO, District of East Tennessee, 4 July-December 1866

The gap in Maj. Gen. Steedman’s command was due to his being in direct command the Provisional Detachment of the District of the Etowah in the Nashville Campaign against the Confederate Army of Tennessee under General John B. Hood.

His temporary replacement in Chattanooga, Maj. Gen. Meagher, previously raised and commanded the famous Irish Brigade.

Before assignment to command the District of East Tennessee, Maj. Gen. Gillem, served previously as executive officer to Maj. Gen. George Stoneman, who held the same post under the Department of the Ohio then the Department of the Cumberland.  Gillem also served as CO of the East Tennessee Cavalry Division and Adjutant General of Tennessee.

ORDERS OF BATTLE FOR THE POST OF CHATTANOOGA
AND THE DISTRICT OF THE ETOWAH

Before getting into the orders of battle, gathered from various volumes of the Official Record of the War of the Rebellion and Dyer’s Compendium, I want to single out four Union army units raised entirely in Chattanooga.

Tennessee 7th Militia: When the State of Tennessee voted to secede on 8 June 1861, staunch Unionist firebrand William Clift mustered the Hamilton county militia…for the Union.  They drilled and garrisoned the fort he built on his large slave-free farm on Sale Creek.  They dispersed in November, most to Huntsville in the Free State of Scott.  There, Clift and others raised the 7th Tennessee Volunteers for the Union, which merged with the 8th Tennessee Volunteers a year later.

42nd U.S. Colored Troops: Organized 20 April 1864.  Later became part of the 1st Colored Brigade of the Department of the Cumberland.

6th Tennessee Mounted Infantry: Organized 20 August 1864 from volunteers in Hamilton County.

18th Ohio Veteran Infantry: Organized 31 October 1864 from veterans of the 1st, 2nd, 18th, 24th and 35th Ohio Infantry regiments who mustered out earlier in the month.


Post of Chattanooga, Dept. of the Cumberland, 29 September 1863:

10th Independent Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
3rd Battalion, 3rd Indiana Cavalry
15th Indiana Infantry
40th Indiana Infantry
57th Indiana Infantry
97th Ohio Infantry
110th Illinois Infantry
Company B, 14th Ohio Infantry

Post of Chattanooga, Dept. of the Cumberland, 30 November 1863:

Infantry

44th Indiana Infantry
15th Kentucky Infantry
9th Michigan Infantry

Pioneer Brigade

1st Battalion
2nd Battalion
3rd Battalion

Engineer Brigade

1st Michigan Engineers and Mechanics
18th Michigan Infantry
21st Michigan Infantry
22nd Michigan Infantry
18th Ohio Infantry

Post of Chattanooga, Dept. of the Cumberland, 31 December 1863:

Infantry

10th Indiana Infantry
44th Indian Infantry
15th Kentucky Infantry

Spear’s Brigade

3rd Tennessee Infantry
5th Tennessee Infantry
6th Tennessee Infantry

Unassigned

39th Indiana Mounted Infantry
28th Kentucky Mounted Infantry
1st Michigan Engineers


Post of Chattanooga, Dept. of the Cumberland, 31 January 1864:

Artillery

4th Battery , Indiana Light Artillery
8th Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
11th Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
Battery I, 1st Ohio Light Artillery
20th Battery, Ohio Light Artillery
Company C , 1st Wisconsin Heavy Artillery

Infantry

10th Indiana Infantry
15th Kentucky Infantry
9th Michigan Infantry
14th U. S. Colored Troops
2nd Battalion, 15th U.S. Infantry
.
Pioneer Brigade.

1st Engineer Battalion
2nd Engineer Battalion
3rd Engineer Battalion
Pontoon Battalion

Engineer Brigade

1st Michigan Engineers and Mechanics
18th Michigan Infantry
21st Michigan Infantry
22nd Michigan Infantry
18th Ohio Infantry


Post of Chattanooga, Dept. of the Cumberland, 30 April 1864:

First Separate Brigade

15th Indiana Infantry
29th Indiana Infantry
44th Indiana Infantry
51st Indiana Infantry
68th Indiana Infantry
8th Kentucky Infantry
3rd Ohio Infantry
24th Ohio Infantry

Garrison Artillery

4th Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
8th Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
10th Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
11th Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
Battery K, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
Battery G, 1st Missouri Light Artillery
20th Battery, Ohio Light Artillery
Company C, 1st Wisconsin Heavy Artillery
3rd Battery, Wisconsin Light Artillery

Engineer Brigade

1st Michigan Engineers and Mechanics
18th Michigan Infantry
21st Michigan Infantry
22nd Michigan Infantry
18th Ohio Infantry

Pioneer Brigade

1st Engineer Battalion
2nd Engineer Battalion
3rd Engineer Battalion
Pontoon Battalion

Unattached

58th Indiana Infantry
9th Michigan Infantry
14th U. S. Colored Troops
16th U. S. Colored Troops


Post of Chattanooga, Department of the Cumberland, 31 May 1864:

1st Separate Brigade, 2nd Division

15th Indiana Infantry
29th Indiana Infantry
44th Indiana Infantry
51st Indiana Infantry
68th Indiana Infantry
8th Kentucky Infantry
3rd Ohio Infantry
24th Ohio Infantry

Garrison Artillery

4th Independent Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
8th Independent Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
Battery A, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
Battery K, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
Battery G, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
20th Battery, Ohio Light Artillery
Company C. 1st Wisconsin Heavy Artillery
3rd Battery, 3rd Wisconsin Light Artillery

Engineer Brigade, 2nd Division

1st Michigan Engineers and Mechanics
18th Michigan Infantry
21st Michigan Infantry
22nd Michigan Infantry
18th Ohio Infantry

Pioneer Brigade, 2nd Division

1st Engineer Battalion
2nd Engineer Battalion
3rd Engineer Battalion
Pontoon Battalion

Unassigned Units

1st Ohio Sharpshooters
14th U.S. Colored Troops
16th U.S. Colored Troops
42nd U.S. Colored Troops
44th U.S. Colored Troops

Veteran Reserve Corps


Post of Chattanooga, 31 August 1864:

1st Separate Brigade, 2nd Division

29th Indiana Infantry
44th Indiana Infantry
51st Indiana Infantry
68th Indiana Infantry
8th Kentucky Infantry
2nd Ohio Infantry

Garrison Artillery

4th Independent Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
8th Independent Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
Battery A, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
Battery K, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
Battery G, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
2nd Independent Battery, Minnesota Light Artillery
20th Independent Battery, Ohio Light Artillery
Battery I, 1st Ohio Light Artillery
Company C. 1st Wisconsin Heavy Artillery
3rd Independent Battery, 3rd Wisconsin Light Artillery

Unassigned Units

1st U.S. Veteran Engineers
10th Indiana Battery
Battery G, 1st Ohio Light Artillery
6th Tennessee Mounted Infantry
14th U.S. Colored Troops
16th U.S. Colored Troops
42nd U.S. Colored Troops
44th U.S. Colored Troops (det. in Rome, Georgia)
1st Veteran Engineers

Engineer Brigade, 2nd Division

1st Michigan Engineers and Mechanics
18th Michigan Infantry
21st Michigan Infantry
22nd Michigan Infantry
18th Ohio Infantry

Pioneer Brigade, 2nd Division

1st Engineer Battalion
2nd Engineer Battalion
3rd Engineer Battalion
Pontoon Battalion


Post of Chattanooga, 30 September 1864

Volunteer Infantry, 2nd Division

29th Indiana Infantry
44th Indiana Infantry
51st Indiana Infantry
68th Indiana Infantry
8th Kentucky Infantry

Regular Infantry, 2nd Division
(Garrison, Lookout Mountain)

1st Battalion, 15th U.S. Infantry
2nd Battalion, 15th U.S. Infantry
Detachment, 16th U.S. Infantry
1st Battalion, 18th U.S. Infantry
2nd Battalion, 18th U.S. Infantry
1st Battalion, 19th U.S. Infantry

Garrison Artillery

4th Independent Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
8th Independent Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
11th Independent Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
Battery A, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
Battery K, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
2nd Independent Battery, Minnesota Light Artillery
Battery G, 1st Missouri Light Artillery
20th Battery, Ohio Light Artillery
Battery I, 1st Ohio Light Artillery
Company C. 1st Wisconsin Heavy Artillery
3rd Independent Battery, 3rd Wisconsin Light Artillery

Unassigned Units

10th Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
58th Indiana Infantry
1st Michigan Engineers and Mechanics
13th Battery, New York Light Artillery
Company B., 1st Ohio Light Artillery
Company G, 1st Ohio Light Artillery
1st Ohio Sharpshooters
5th Tennessee Mounted Infantry
6th Tennessee Mounted Infantry
1st U.S. Veteran Engineers
14th U.S. Colored Troops
16th U.S. Colored Troops
42nd U.S. Colored Troops
44th U.S. Colored Troops


Post of Chattanooga, 31 October 1864:

Volunteer Infantry, 2nd Division

29th Indiana Infantry
44th Indiana Infantry
68th Indiana Infantry
8th Kentucky Infantry
15th Wisconsin Infantry

Regular Infantry, 2nd Division
(Garrison, Lookout Mountain)

1st and 3rd Battalions, 15th U.S. Infantry
2nd Battalion, 15th U.S. Infantry
Detachment, 16th U.S. Infantry
2nd Battalion, 18th U.S. Infantry
1st Battalion, 19th U.S. Infantry

Garrison Artillery

4th Independent Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
8th Independent Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
11th Independent Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
Battery A, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
Battery K, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
2nd Independent Battery, Minnesota Light Artillery
Company A, Minnesota Heavy Artillery
Company B, Minnesota Heavy Artillery
Battery G, 1st Missouri Light Artillery
20th Battery, Ohio Light Artillery
Battery G, 1st Ohio Light Artillery
Battery I, 1st Ohio Light Artillery
Company C, 1st Wisconsin Heavy Artillery
3rd Battery, Wisconsin Light Artillery

Reserve Brigade, 2nd Division

9th Michigan Infantry
22nd Michigan Infantry

Signal Corps, 2nd Division

Unassigned Units

1st Illinois Light Artillery
10th Independent Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
13th Independent Battery, New York Light Artillery
Company B., 1st Ohio Light Artillery
1st Ohio Sharpshooters
5th Tennessee Mounted Infantry
6th Tennessee Mounted Infantry
1st U.S. Veteran Engineers
14th U.S. Colored Troops
16th U.S. Colored Troops
42nd U.S. Colored Troops
44th U.S. Colored Troops

Provisional Detachment, District of the Etowah, 29 November 1864:
Serving in the Nashville Campaign thru 5 January 1865

1st Colored Brigade

16th U.S. Colored Troops
17th U.S. Colored Troops
18th U.S. Colored Troops
42nd U.S. Colored Troops
44th U.S. Colored Troops

2nd Colored Brigade

1st Independent Battery, Kansas Light Artillery
12th U.S. Colored Troops
13th U.S. Colored Troops
100th U.S. Colored Troops

Cruft’s Provisional Division

20th Independent Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
6th Indiana Cavalry, Dismounted
68th Indiana Infantry
18th Independent Battery, Ohio Light Artillery
18th Ohio Veteran Infantry
Elements of the 14th, 17th, and 20th Army Corps


Post of Chattanooga, District of the Etowah, 30 November 1864:

1st Brigade, 2nd Division
(Garrison, Lookout Mountain)

2nd Battalion, 15th U.S. Infantry
3rd Battalion, 15th U.S. Infantry
16th U.S. Infantry
2nd Battalion, 18th U.S. Infantry
1st Battalion, 19th U.S. Infantry

2nd Brigade, 2nd Division

29th Indiana Infantry
32nd Indiana Infantry
44th Indiana Infantry
8th Kentucky Infantry
15th Wisconsin Infantry

Garrison Artillery

Battery M, 1st Illinois Light Artillery
4th Independent Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
8th Independent Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
11th Independent Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
Battery A, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
Battery K, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
2nd Battery, Minnesota Light Artillery
Company A, Minnesota Heavy Artillery
Company B, Minnesota Heavy Artillery
Company C, Minnesota Heavy Artillery
Battery G, 1st Missouri Light Artillery
20th Independent Battery, Ohio Light Artillery
Battery I, 1st Ohio Light Artillery
1st Independent Battery, Wisconsin Light Artillery
3rd Independent Battery, Wisconsin Light Artillery
Battery K, 5th U.S. Artillery

Signal Corps, 2nd Division

Unassigned Units

10th Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
Battery I, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
1st Battalion, Ohio Sharpshooters
5th Tennessee Mounted Infantry
6th Tennessee Mounted Infantry
1st U.S. Veteran Engineers
42nd U.S. Colored Troops

Garrison, Lookout Mountain

Battery G, 1st Missouri Light Artillery

Garrison, Bridgeport

Battery B, 1st Ohio Light Artillery

Reserve Brigade, 2nd Division

9th Michigan Infantry
22nd Michigan Infantry


Post of Chattanooga District of the Etowah, 31 December 1864:

1st Brigade, 1st Separate Division
(Garrison, Lookout Mountain)

2nd Battalion, 15th U.S. Infantry
3rd Battalion, 15th U.S. Infantry
16th U.S. Infantry
2nd Battalion, 18th U.S. Infantry
1st Battalion, 19th U.S. Infantry

2nd Brigade, 1st Separate Division

29th Indiana Infantry
32nd Indiana Infantry
44th Indiana Infantry
8th Kentucky Infantry
15th Wisconsin Infantry

Garrison Artillery

Battery M, 1st Illinois Light Artillery
8th Independent Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
Battery A, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
Battery K, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
2nd Battery, Minnesota Light Artillery
Company A, Minnesota Heavy Artillery
Company B, Minnesota Heavy Artillery
Company C, Minnesota Heavy Artillery
2nd Independent Battery, Minnesota Light Artillery
Battery G, 1st Missouri Light Artillery
Battery I, 1st Ohio Light Artillery
Company C, Wisconsin Heavy Artillery
3rd Independent Battery, Wisconsin Light Artillery

Unassigned Units

65th New York Infantry
5th Tennessee Mounted Infantry
6th Tennessee Mounted Infantry
42nd U.S. Colored Troops


Post of Chattanooga, District of the Etowah, 28 February 1865:

Although it did not directly affect the District of the Etowah, the Department of the Ohio merged into the Department of the Cumberland in January 1865.

1st Brigade, 1st Separate Division
(Garrison, Lookout Mountain)

2nd Battalion, 15th U.S. Infantry
3rd Battalion, 15th U.S. Infantry
16th U.S. Infantry
2nd Battalion, 18th U.S. Infantry
1st Battalion, 19th U.S. Infantry
Battery G, 1st Missouri Light Artillery

2nd Brigade, 1st Separate Division

29th Indiana Infantry
32nd Indiana Infantry
44th Indiana Infantry
68th Indiana Infantry
18th Ohio Veteran Infantry

1st Colored Brigade

16th U.S. Colored Troops
18th U.S. Colored Troops
42nd U.S. Colored Troops
44th U.S. Colored Troops

2nd Colored Brigade

1st Independent Battery, Kansas Light Artillery
12th U.S. Colored Troops
13th U.S. Colored Troops
100th U.S. Colored Troops

Garrison Artillery

Battery M, 1st Illinois Light Artillery
7th Independent Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
8th Independent Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
Battery A, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
Battery K, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
2nd Independent Battery, Minnesota Light Artillery
Company A, Minnesota Heavy Artillery
Company B, Minnesota Heavy Artillery
Company C, Minnesota Heavy Artillery
Company D, Minnesota Heavy Artillery
2nd Battery, Minnesota Light Artillery
Battery I, 1st Ohio Light Artillery
20th Independent Battery, Ohio Light Artillery
Company C, Wisconsin Heavy Artillery

Garrison, Bridgeport

68th New York Infantry
Battery B, 1st Ohio Light Artillery
9th Independent Battery, Ohio Light Artillery
Battery M, 4th U.S. Artillery
14th U.S. Colored Troops

Unassigned Units

149th Illinois Infantry
150th Illinois Infantry
145th Indiana Infantry
10th Independent Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
Battery E, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
Detachment, 11th Michigan Infantry
5th Tennessee Mounted Infantry
6th Tennessee Mounted Infantry


Post of Chattanooga, District of the Etowah, 30 April 1865:

1st Brigade, 1st Separate Division
(Garrison, Lookout Mountain)

2nd Battalion, 15th U.S. Infantry
3rd Battalion, 15th U.S. Infantry
16th U.S. Infantry
2nd Battalion, 18th U.S. Infantry
1st Battalion, 19th U.S. Infantry
Battery G, 1st Missouri Light Artillery

2nd Brigade, 1st Separate Division

29th Indiana Infantry
32nd Indiana Infantry
44th Indiana Infantry
68th Indiana Infantry
18th Ohio Veteran Infantry

1st Brigade, 2nd Separate Division

1st Georgia Battalion
147th Illinois Infantry
151st Illinois Infantry
145th Indiana Infantry
187th Ohio Infantry
6th Tennessee Mounted Infantry
Battery I, 1st Ohio Light Artillery

2nd Brigade, 2nd Separate Division

149th Illinois Infantry
150th Illinois Infantry
68th New York Infantry
186th Ohio Infantry

3rd Brigade, 2nd Separate Division

156th Illinois Infantry
11th Michigan Infantry (Reorganized)
22nd Michigan Infantry

1st Colored Brigade

14th U.S. Colored Troops
16th U.S. Colored Troops
18th U.S. Colored Troops
42nd U.S. Colored Troops
44th U.S. Colored Troops

2nd Colored Brigade

1st Independent Battery, Kansas Light Artillery
12th U.S. Colored Troops
13th U.S. Colored Troops
100th U.S. Colored Troops

Garrison Artillery

1st Minnesota Heavy Artillery
20th Independent Battery, Ohio Light Artillery

Unbrigaded Units

184th Ohio Infantry
5th Tennessee Mounted Infantry

Garrison, Bridgeport

Battery B, 1st Ohio Light Artillery
9th Independent Battery, Ohio Light Artillery
Battery F, 2d United States Artillery
Battery M, 4th United States Artillery

Garrison, Cleveland, Tennessee

Battery M, 1st Illinois Light Artillery

Light Artillery Reserve

Battery A, 1st Illinois Light Artillery
Battery E, 1st Illinois Light Artillery
13th Independent Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
20th Independent Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
1st Independent Battery, Kansas Light Artillery
Battery A, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
Battery H, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
Battery I, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
Battery E, 1st Ohio Light Artillery
12th Battery, Ohio Light Artillery
18th Battery, Ohio Light Artillery
Battery K, 5th United States Artillery
6th Battery, Wisconsin Light Artillery

Signal Corps


Post of Chattanooga, District of East Tennessee, 4 July 1865:

In late June, the Department of the Cumberland was dissolved and its units transferred to the Department of the Tennessee.  The District of the Etowah was merged into the District of East Tennessee, originally of the Department of the Ohio.  Headquarters for the District of East Tennessee in the new Department of Tennessee as of this date were moved to Chattanooga.

1st Brigade, 1st Separate Division
(Garrison Lookout Mountain)

Battery G, 1st Missouri Light Artillery
2nd Battalion, 15th U.S. Infantry
3rd Battalion, 15th U.S. Infantry
16th U.S. Infantry
1st Battalion, 19th U.S. Infantry

2nd Brigade, 1st Separate Division

44th Indiana Infantry
18th Ohio Veteran Infantry
186th Ohio Infantry
2nd Battalion, 18th U.S. Infantry

1st Brigade, 2nd Separate Division

1st Georgia Battalion
147th Illinois Infantry
151st Illinois Infantry
187th Ohio Infantry

2nd Brigade, 2nd Separate Division

149th Illinois Infantry
150th Illinois Infantry
29th Indiana Infantry

3rd Brigade, 2nd Separate Division

156th Illinois Infantry

1st Colored Brigade

14th U.S. Colored Troops
18th U.S. Colored Troops
42nd U.S. Colored Troops
44th U.S. Colored Troops

2nd Colored Brigade

1st Independent Battery, Kansas Light Artillery
12th U.S. Colored Troops
13th U.S. Colored Troops
100th U.S. Colored Troops

Garrison Artillery, Chattanooga

13th Independent Battery, Indiana Light Artillery
Battery A, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
Battery H, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
1st Minnesota Heavy Artillery
20th Independent Battery, Ohio Light Artillery

Light Artillery Reserve

Battery A, 1st Illinois Light Artillery
Battery E, 1st Illinois Light Artillery
Battery I, 1st Michigan Light Artillery
Battery K, 5th U.S. Artillery
6th Independent Battery, Wisconsin Light Artillery

Garrison, Bridgeport

Battery B, 1st Ohio Light Artillery
9th Independent Battery, Ohio Light Artillery
12th Independent Battery, Ohio Light Artillery
184th Ohio Infantry
Battery M, 4th U.S. Artillery

Garrison, Cleveland, Tennessee

Battery M, 1st Illinois Light Artillery

Unassigned

Battery E, 1st Ohio Light Artillery
5th Tennessee Mounted Infantry
Battery F, 2nd U.S. Artillery


Post of Chattanooga, District of East Tennessee, 20 July 1865:

At the beginning of August, the Department of the Tennessee too was dissolved, most of its units transferring to the new Department of Tennessee but with many units to the Department of Georgia.  Both belonged to the Military Division of the Tennessee.

2nd Brigade, 4th Division

44th Indiana Infantry
186th Ohio Infantry
11th Michigan Infantry
16th U.S. Colored Troops
18th U.S. Colored Troops
42nd U.S. Colored Troops
44th U.S. Colored Troops

Garrison Artillery

1st Minnesota Heavy Artillery
Battery K, 5th U.S. Artillery

Garrison, Bridgeport

Battery M, 4th U.S. Artillery

Unassigned

Battery F, 2nd U.S. Artillery
14th U.S. Colored Troops

Transferred to Department of Georgia

147th Illinois Infantry
149th Illinois Infantry
150th Illinois Infantry
151st Illinois Infantry
156th Illinois Infantry
29th Indiana Infantry
145th Indiana Infantry
187th Ohio Infantry


Post of Chattanooga, District of East Tennessee, 1 October 1865:

2nd Brigade, 4th Division

44th Indiana Infantry
186th Ohio Infantry
16th U.S. Colored Troops
18th U.S. Colored Troops
42nd U.S. Colored Troops
44th U.S. Colored Troops

Garrison Artillery

1st Minnesota Heavy Artillery
Battery K, 5th U.S. Artillery

Garrison, Bridgeport

Battery M, 4th U.S. Artillery

Unassigned

Battery F, 2nd U.S. Artillery
14th U.S. Colored Troops



Post of Chattanooga, District of East Tennessee, 1 January 1866:

2nd Brigade, 4th Division

16th U.S. Colored Troops
18th U.S. Colored Troops
42nd U.S. Colored Troops
44th U.S. Colored Troops


Post of Chattanooga, District of East Tennessee, 1 February 1866:

2nd Brigade, 4th Division

16th U.S. Colored Troops
18th U.S. Colored Troops
44th U.S. Colored Troop


Post of Chattanooga, District of East Tennessee, 1 March 1866:

These last two units mustered out in April.

2nd Brigade, 4th Division

16th U.S. Colored Troops
44th U.S. Colored Troops


Chattanooga’s navy

The Union garrison at Chattanooga had its own brown water navy. 

The U.S.S. Chattanooga was a steamer built in Bridgeport with which to open the Cracker Line to the besieged Army of the Cumberland in the town in autumn 1863.  Two other steamers involved in the supply operations were the U.S.S. Dunbar and the U.S.S. Paint Rock, originally Confederate boats sunk during Wilder’s bombardment of Chattanooga 7-8 June 1862. 

Other steamers built specifically for Cracker Line operations were the U.S.S. Chickamauga, U.S.S. Kingston, U.S.S. Bridgeport, U.S.S. Missionary, U.S.S. Wauhatchie, U.S.S. Resaca, and U.S.S. Stone River.  Union engineers also raised and relaunched three more former Confederate boats, the U.S.S. James Glover, U.S.S. Holston, and U.S.S. Tennessee, which had been scuttled by Forrest’s troops. After the siege lifted following the Battle of Missionary Ridge, these boats, cargo steamers rather than gun boats, remained on station serving the needs of the garrison, with the exception of the Stone River.

After the launch of the Atlanta Campaign from the town on 2 May 1864, the engineers remaining at the Post of Chattanooga constructed four “tinclads”, light-weight armored gunboats intended for river service.  Named the U.S.S. General Grant, U.S.S. General Sherman, U.S.S. General Thomas, and U.S.S. General Burnside, they officially launched from Chattanooga as the Union’s Upper Tennessee River fleet.  A short time later, joined by the refitted U.S.S. Stone River as the little fleet’s flagship, they took up station on the river between Bridgeport and Muscle Shoals, based out of the former and officially designated the 11th District of the Mississippi Squadron.

Confederate fortifications

Although the main focus is the fortifications of the Federal Military Occupation, it wouldn’t hurt to mention those erected by the Army of Tennessee and its immediate predecessor the Army of the Mississippi.

In and near the town of Chattanooga, twelve permanent fortifications were built or at least started, and General Joe Johnston, Confederate commander of the western theater, recommended at least two more.  Many or all of the locations later occupied by the Union probably surmounted or moved into and improved their Confederate predecessors.

Fort Whitaker started life as a Confederate battery.  Fort Cameron previously served the Confederacy under the same name.  The first redoubt on Kirkman Hill was built by soldiers of the Army of Tennessee.  Fort Cheatham, a well-built redoubt, stood at the foot of Missionary Ridge in the neighborhood now called by its name bounded by the ridge, I-24, East 28th Street, and 4th Avenue.  Battery Smartt may have been the foundation for the Union’s Signal Hill post.

Planned but probably unbuilt was a network of twelve blockhouses to guard the length of South Chickamauga Creek, which was still called Chickamauga River at the time.  On the grounds of Camp Jordan, however, two surviving large man-made earthen walls enclosing the south and west sides of a peninsula formed by the junction of the South and West Chickamauga Creeks most likely date to the Civil War.

During the occupation of the Chattanooga region by the Confederacy’s Army of Tennessee in the summer of 1863, Cleburne’s Division was stationed in the Hickory Valley area and built four redoubts there, two guarding Chickamauga Station and two guarding Tyner Station.  A regiment of his division stationed in the county seat of Harrison built another there.

The northern of the redoubts at Tyner lay smack in the center of the village of Tyner, and is remarkably well-preserved.  Without too much effort it could be rehabilitated as well as Fort Harker in Stevenson, Alabama, under the District of North Alabama during the occupation.

Sources:

Armstrong, Zella.  The History of Hamilton County and Chattanooga, Tennessee, Volume II.  (Chattanooga: Lookout Publishing CO., 1940).

Dyer, Frederick.  A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion.  (Des Moines: Dyer Publishing Co., 1908).

Evans, E. Raymond.  Contributions by United States Colored Troops (USCT) of Chattanooga & North Georgia during the American Civil War, Reconstruction and formation of Chattanooga.  (Rock Springs: Beverley Catherine Mitchell Foster, 2003).

Powell, David A.  “Incubator of Innovation: The Army of the Cumberland and the Spirit of Innovation in 1863”.  Gateway to the Confederacy: New Perspectives on the Chickamauga and Chattanooga Campaigns, 1862-1863, Evan C. Jones and Wiley Sword, ed. (Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 2014).

Scott, Lieut. Col. Robert N., ed.  The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1891).